Regime loads The regimen includes cargoes, to ensure the safe transportation of which it is necessary to maintain a given temperature, humidity and ventilation conditions. Transportation of sensitive cargoes is carried out on the basis of the General Rules for the sea transportation of sensitive cargoes, the Rules for the transportation of sensitive vessels on ventilated vessels and the Rules for the transportation of perishable goods on refrigerated vessels.
Modal cargoes are divided into two classes – perishable and non-perishable and into two subclasses – requiring and not requiring air exchange during transportation. All mode loads, depending on their properties, are grouped into categories.
Perishable goods – these are goods that require compliance with the process of transportation and storage, special thermal humidity and ventilation modes. They are divided into two classes: refrigerated and non-refrigerated. In turn, refrigerated goods are divided into 3 groups: frozen, chilled and refrigerated. Each of these groups requires certain temperature regimes: ice cream -6°С and below; chilled – from -5 to -1 ° C; cooled from 0 to + 15 ° C. To ensure safe transportation take into account: the degree of fitness of the vessel for this transportation, the condition of the cargo; season, direction and duration of the flight. In addition, in the process of transportation, two features are taken into account – the common origin of the product and the common mode of transportation. Insufficient accounting of at least one sign will lead or may lead to damage to the cargo.
Refrigerated vessels, refrigerated containers and so-called “ventilated” vessels are used for the transportation of perishable goods, i.e. ships with a special ventilation system.
All perishable goods in one way or another are subject to natural loss, for example, shrinkage due to loss of moisture. The optimum relative humidity for fruits is 85-95%. At 80% and below, the fruits fade, and an increase in relative humidity leads to an increase in the vital activity of microorganisms. The quality of the load is influenced by microorganisms, the gas composition of the air and the light exposure. Microorganisms (batteries, molds) are most active at temperatures from +15 to + 20 ° C, however, some of the microbes can exist at low temperatures.
The meat is cooled or frozen. Three temperature ranges were adopted: chilled from -0.5 to -1.5 ° C; frozen from -12 to -13 ° C; heavily frozen from -18 to -30 ° C. Chilled meat can be stored for 15-17 days. without noticeable deterioration in product quality.
Fish and fish products are transported chilled and frozen. Chilled fish is stored for up to 12 days. If the fish is “glazed”, then the state of glazing should be checked, especially if the fish was glazed with salt water, because the cover of salt water is very weak.
Animal oil is transported in boxes, barrels, tubs. The temperature of the oil during loading should not exceed -2 ° C. When transporting oil on non-refrigerated vessels, the duration of the carriage should not exceed 4 days if the ambient temperature exceeds + 4 ° C.
Cheese is transported at temperatures from 0 to + 12 ° C with a relative humidity of 80-85%. Cheese can be transported without refrigeration if the temperature at the transition does not exceed + 17 ° C.
Egg cargo. Fresh eggs are “live” cargo and require ventilation. The temperature of transportation on refrigerated vessels is from -1.5 to + 1.5 ° С, relative humidity is 85-90%. Transportation time on ordinary ships should not exceed 5-6 days.
Canned products. Canned vegetables and fruits in glass containers can be transported on non-refrigerated vessels at temperatures from -1 to + 25 ° С. Allowed transportation time: 5 days at a temperature of 16-25 ° C; 10 days at a temperature of 7-10 ° C. Canned fish (sprats, anchovies) can be transported at temperatures from -5 to 0 ° C. At a temperature of -3 ° C, the crystallization of juice begins in canned food, and at a temperature of + 25 ° C, the activation of fermentation bacteria begins.
Bulk (liquid) cargoes are cargoes for the transportation of which a container is not required, and for transportation of them, cars with special bodies – tanks are used. In the total cargo flow of Ukraine, bulk (liquid) cargoes occupy one of the main places and are divided into two types:
Ukraine is an agricultural country and a leading producer of agricultural products. The main place in the bulk cargo flow is taken up by food items, such as milk, alcohol and sunflower oil – products that are actively and in large quantities exported to the EU countries.
For the transportation of bulk food products, tankers, railway tanks and flexitanks for shipping are used. Before loading into food tanks, containers undergo a mandatory check in laboratories for cleanliness and absence of foreign substances, after which an appropriate document is issued authorizing loading into this vehicle. Tankers should also be sanitized after each delivery. As a rule, food tanks are made of stainless steel, which protects the product from corrosion.
Flexitank for 20ft universal containers.
Flexitank is an elastic insulated tank made of specially developed polymer materials, designed for 20-foot containers and is a safe tank for transporting liquid bulk cargoes.
Flexitanks have been used for the transportation of liquid bulk cargoes for more than 20 years.
Flexitank is a flexible tank with a volume of 10,000 to 24,000 liters.
The weight of the transported cargo, tons = (density of the cargo mass * flexitank capacity) * 95%
For one-time use, all flexitanks are insured by world insurance. Insurance does not cover reuse.
Losses during loading and unloading operations do not exceed 0.5%
Advantages of flexitanks:
- The product is sealed and there is no risk of contamination.
- Relatively low installation costs.
- Flexitank installation with a volume of 24,000 liters inside 20 feet. The container allows you to transport 40% more than in barrels, 50% more than in bottles and 15% more payload compared to IBC.
- No need to send back and empty containers.
- The speed of loading and emptying is higher than that of barrels and IBC.
- Cargo is delivered “from door to door” without intermediate overloads
- Using the maximum working volume of the container
- Lightweight, safe, economical
- Highly qualified operators are not required
- Wide range of use
- Reduction of product losses during unloading
- Ensures container integrity
- Fully recyclable and recyclable
Disadvantages of flexitanks:
- Products deemed unsafe in IMDG rules are not allowed for carriage.
- Pumps are required for unloading.
- More preparations are needed compared to tanks, despite the fact that tanks require thorough cleaning, especially when transporting food.
- Environmental problems associated with the disposal of disposable flexitanks.
- Risk of leakage of all contents.
- High potential leakage cleaning costs.
- Do not use for shipping refrigerated containers.
Most dangerous goods are classified by the consignors (manufacturers) of dangerous goods. To do this, they can contact the competent authorities.
In Ukraine (due to the lack of competent authorities responsible for the classification of dangerous goods (hazardous waste), the entities transporting dangerous goods conceived are forced to independently identify dangerous goods (hazardous waste).
When transporting dangerous goods by road, the classification of dangerous goods (hazardous waste) is carried out on the basis of part 2 of ADR and the criteria developed by the UN Committee of Experts.
DSTU 4500-3: 2006 also operates in Ukraine. Dangerous goods. The classification that replaced the homonymous GOST 19433 88.
Depending on the types of hazard, as well as their physical, chemical and biological properties, all dangerous goods are divided into these hazard classes:
class 1 explosives and articles;
class 2 gases;
class 3 flammable liquids;
class 4.1 flammable solids, self-reactive substances, solid desensitized explosives;
class 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion;
class 4.3 substances emitting flammable gases in contact with water;
class 5.1 oxidizing substances;
class 5.2 organic peroxides;
class 6.1 toxic substances;
class 6.2 infectious substances;
class 7 radioactive materials;
class 8 corrosive substances;
class 9 other dangerous substances and products.
The sequence number of the hazard class does not correspond to the degree of danger of the dangerous goods.
The hazard class of the dangerous goods is indicated in column 3a of table A of chapter 3.2 of ADR (list of dangerous goods in the order of the UN numbers assigned to them). The criteria for classifying substances and products as dangerous goods are given in chapter 2.2 of ADR.
In cases where a dangerous goods is characterized by more than one type of danger, in the references to the most significant of them the term “Main danger” is used, and for other types of danger the term “Additional danger” is used.
To indicate the dangerous properties of dangerous goods, hazard signs are used (see the figures for particular classes of dangerous goods), which must be applied to the dangerous goods or packaging with such cargo. The hazard label system is based on the classification of dangerous goods and is designed to:
- make dangerous goods easily recognizable at a distance according to the general appearance of the danger signs on them (symbol, color and shape);
- provide, with the color of the hazard labels, the first useful indication in relation to loading and unloading operations, stacking and separation of goods.
Dangerous Goods Classification Codes
To indicate the dangerous properties of dangerous goods, as well as their physical and chemical properties or belonging to a certain group of substances, classification codes are used, which in themselves reveal the properties of dangerous goods.
The classification code consists of a letter (s) that indicates (are) a group of hazardous properties and can be supplemented by a figure characterizing the physical or chemical properties of the cargo or its belonging to a specific group of chemicals.
For hazardous substances or 1st class products, the classification code consists of the subclass number and the letter of the compatibility group.
For hazardous substances or products of the 2nd class, the classification code consists of a figure indicating the state of aggregation, the type of substance or product and a letter (s) indicating the group of hazardous properties.
Class 7 radioactive materials are not assigned classification codes.
Examples of classification codes for:
– dangerous goods of class 1: 1.1A, 1.2B, 1.3C, 1.4S;
– dangerous goods of class 2: 1A, 2TC, 3O, 5F, 1TO;
– dangerous goods of other classes: D, F1, FO, ST3, OTC.
The meanings of the letters used in the classification codes and indicating the group of hazardous properties are given below.
Values of letters used in classification codes
A Choking gases
C Corrosive substances
D Desensitized Explosives
F Flammable substances
I Infectious substances
M Other hazardous substances
O Oxidizing agents
P Organic Peroxides
S Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
SR Self-reactive substances
T Toxic substances
W Substances that emit flammable gases in contact with water
Dangerous Goods Identification
Dangerous goods are identified by the proper shipping names and UN numbers (UN numbers). Such names and numbers are assigned to certain hazardous substances and products according to the UN classification system.
Since many requirements apply separately to each item on the list of dangerous goods, dangerous goods must be identified before starting transportation.
As a result of identification of a dangerous cargo (hazardous waste), the following information elements are determined:
- UN number of dangerous goods;
- Proper shipping name of the dangerous goods;
- Class, types of additional hazard of dangerous goods;
- Dangerous goods packing group (not for all dangerous goods);
- Numbers of hazard labels;
- Classification code (not for all dangerous goods).
After determining all of the above information elements, you can begin to determine the requirements for the transport of dangerous goods.
Dangerous cargo identification by UN number
UN Number – “United Nations Number” means the four-digit identification number of a substance or product taken from the UN Model Regulations.
Dangerous goods are identified by the UN number according to the Dangerous Goods List in Table A of Chapter 3.2 of ADR. In this list, all dangerous goods are listed in the order of the UN numbers assigned to them.
If the UN number is not listed in the Dangerous Goods List, then the identification of the goods was incorrect.
For dangerous goods, not specifically indicated by name in the list of dangerous goods, the UN number is determined after determining the class, type of additional hazard (if any) and packing group (if necessary).
However, not always one UN number is enough to identify a dangerous cargo.
- or the identification of aerosols (UN number 1950), it is additionally necessary to know the classification code or the number of hazard labels
- To identify paint (UN number 1263), you must also know the packing group.
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